July 13, 1914


nevadaClick for full p. 3


All Money Raised Will Go for
Rifles – To Decide Later How
to Send Them.

The executive committee of the
Irish Volunteer Fund, at a ?c??:on lin?
ing from ” p. m. Saturday to noon Sun?
day, adopted a constitution for the or?
ganization and issued an appeal to the
Irish people in the United States for
funds to arm and equip the National
Volunteer? in J’
The appeal says there is r.o intention i
?f making war on the Ulster Volun?
teers, and expresses the hope of an
ultimate union of orange a1 id green
Jo?eph McGarrit**! of Philadelphia,
r.a-oial prerider.t of the American or?
ganization, laid before the mooting a
letter from Prof. ? 1 in MacNeil,
chairman of the provisional committee
of the Ir:??h National Volunteers in
Ireland, acknowledging the receipt of
?J,iW> cabled by Treasurer Spellissy
?u, a ‘ ‘ – ? talment of the Ir-.?,h
American contribution. “The Irish
Volunta? ; ‘he writer, “look to
their friends in America not so much
for pecur.-ary a 1 as for a supply of
rifles to be purchased and sent to us.”‘
The cornrr – ? ? ? d to act on this
Ifg4 ? Ol and funds collected in
Amere,-, will be used n thii country
for the purchase of arm? alone. A ? i
the mean?- by which these xxill reach
the h?i in Ireland
?he eoi t it was s matter for
later arra- ;?
? n adopted provides
?r.a* ??”? an fund rnus- be held
v?cred arid inviolable.” Every member
who can afford il s -?? ! to provide
the pi ‘i.t one r

employ the muskrat

The Tension Between Austria-Hungary and Serbia
Vienna, July 13.
Memory goes back to the moving days of March [1909; the Bosnian Annexation Crisis beginning in 1908 – wjs]. The year of annexations is again alive.
The Serbian Minister of Foreign Affairs Milovanovic said at that time in the chamber, that the first priority of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in the Balkans is to make the people of two countries Serbian “slaves”. These words were later obliterated or completely denied. What they showed was that even men who had an official responsibility and were particularly moderate would leave out any consideration of the Monarchy. … in Serbia the threats were getting worse, and the language there was   so violent that the military preparations of the   Monarchy had to be continued on a large scale.
At that time it took place, that the Serbian Prime Minister in a conversation in the most abrupt manner known among Serbs said. “The three million Serbs in Serbia and Montenegro, do not form the Serbian nation; no, they only form the third part of the nation, The other two thirds, seven million, are in Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia,   Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it [Austria-Hungary]wants to annex. This two-thirds were, completely against their will, the subjects of the Habsburg realm. You are Austrian subjects. . . We ten million Serbs want to preserve our national character. we do not want to be sucked out of Austria. We   want to be free. But we want this goal to be achieved by peaceful, lawful means. Therefore, we want a way to be joined with our Montenegrin brothers, lands, from which we are separated by Bosnia…”

We have recalled to mind this   statement of the Serbian Prime Minister, of course statistically not quite right and the Croats renamed as Serbian, because   it shows most clearly what was then going on in Belgrade based in the concept of internal politics. It a feature of the Serbian   views on the characteristics of independence that a Minister of Foreign Affairs in the the chamber, indecently when concerning a foreign State, should refer to “slaves” and that a Prime Minister   should open the commitment to a policy by which the breaking away of areas of a country could take place. Greater Serbia is, through the conquest of all the lands inhabited by Serbs … a matter of internal policy, in which no other state would be allowed to meddle… the internal  Policy is probably also the importation [into Austria-Hungary] of bombs and   of murderers, and an internal policy of sustaining an Organization with the purpose of keeping our border countries in turmoil.

This Serbian excuse,   that international law is downright absurd and against   reason, we have already heard in the annexation crisis; they would have, without the   mediation undertaken with the greatest tentacity by the British Cabinet, come close to an armed collision. The Serbian Minister of Foreign Affairs Milovanovic answered  all complaints of the monarchy and also the   urgent representations of the other powers and   friendly advice of the Russian Cabinet with  the sweet statement that ” … the legal position of the   Serbian kingdom to the Monarchy  remained normal and that Serbia has neither the intention of provoking a war with the neighboring Monarchy, nor wants it, that its good legal relations with her are not changed, and continue, on the basis of reciprocity, the ability to meet its neighborly obligations with her and to continue past relationships   corresponding to mutual material interests. ”

This note of Mr. Milovanovic is even now used as a pattern. The fact that in Serbia   Murder plans are prepared and that there by “Greater Serbia” hostilities against the Monarchy are nourished, all these processes are regarded as internal questions, components of Serbian independence. Officially as assured during the Annexation of some years ago, Serbia   was seeking, on the basis of reciprocity, to fulfill its neighborly contractual duties.

However, the Monarchy was not satisfied with such ambiguities and demanded that Serbia explicitly, not merely in a face of the powers , make a  Statement to be delivered to the Vienna cabinet, directly acknowledging  that it had no claim whatsoever on Bosnia and Herzegovina had and change its policy in order to enable peaceful relations. At the time, very important voices advocated against the paper guarantee and a move against “Greater Serbia” with the sword. We find a clear record of these sentiments in the speech of the Austrian Prime Minister Freiherr von Menerth, who said:

“There, however, is a natural limit for us, as for any State, in regard to the state and dignity: the Security of our territory. While we will get everything from the blessings of peace, should the opponent prove our wishes and desires to be impossible, what we all should wish to see avoided will come about; should  the need arise to appeal to the to the patriotism of the peoples of Austria, then, the government is convinced this appeal will  find in the high home of the legal representation of the Austrian peoples [i. e. the Austro-Hungarian Parliament – wjs] a loud and enthusiastic response ”
The declaration of the Austrian Prime Minister [i. e. in March 1909] showed that Serbia had only the choice of the legally binding declarations desired by the Monarchy or going to our Minister to hand over their passports. There could be no third time and after so long a delay negotiations could also hardly be expected. Serbia decided, under the mediation of the British Cabinet, to accept the legally binding declaration demanded by Count Aehrenthal in Vienna Through this agreement, peace has been obtained

What Serbia did commit to at that time? The Serbian Minister Simic in Vienna in a note to to the [Austrian] Minister of Foreign Affairs, notified the approval by the [Serbian] Parliament and the decision taken by the Cabinet in Belgrade. The note read: “Serbia recognizes that it is not affected by the facts of right established in Bosnia and that it will therefore adapt the resolutions in relation to  Article 25 of the Berlin Treaty and will meet and commit to the advice of the Great Powers to Serbia, and will give up the attitude of protest and  Opposition which she has adopted with regard to the annexation since last October. It agrees, further, to change the direction of its current policy towards Austria-Hungary and henceforth to live with this on the heels of friendly relations; In line with these observations and in reliance on the peaceful intentions of Austria-Hungary is Serbia’s army returned to the organization, location and the effective strength prior to the state returned to the situation of the spring of 1908. It will disarm the volunteers and disarm, dismiss and prevent formation of new irregular corps on its territory. ”

The United Serbia is according to the clear wording this note in breach of contract. … the notion of “Greater Serbia” expressed in Serbia manifests itself not only in opinions and feelings, but in actions which are not unknown to the Serbian government, and it is this suspicion of complicity in criminal acts that cannot be tolerated any more by a civilized state and must be wiped out with the greatest vigilance. Serbia undertook the direction, further, of a policy change with regard to Austria-Hungary, to henceforth live with this country in friendly relations. This is just the definition of the duty assumed by Serbia not to perpetuate “Greater Serbia” intrigues and to prevent them for the future. Neighborly relations with “Greater Serbia”  are impossible and political arson is not a feature of international legal independence.

Those who witnessed the speech of Baron von Bienerth in the March days of the annexation crisis have a sense of shame. The Parliament is closed, and the constitutional ground from which the then Prime Minister turned to the people of the Monarchy, has been made inaccessible by arbitrariness. The Austrian Government has no need to open a grand show of self sacrifice in front of all Europe. She has better things to do and must be in this crisis with the bayonets of veterans and employ the muskrat. [emphasis mine – wjs]

Neue Freie Presse, Vienna, July 13, 1914

[ This wonderful and seemingly absurd final reference to the large North American rodent introduced into Europe in the 18th century may have to do with articles of Austro-Hungarian military uniforms made from the fur of the muskrat: caps, gloves, collars; perhaps even entire coats – wjs]


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